Amethyst (from Ancient Greek: δεν "not" + μεθυσμένος "intoxicated") is the violet variety of the mineral Quartz.
Amethyst occurs in primary hues, exhibiting one or both of red and blue hues, ranging from a light pinkish to a deep purple. The ideal grade is called "Deep Siberian" with a 75% purple hue and 15-20% blue and red secondary hues. The colour of amethyst is often laid out in stripes parallel to the final faces of the crystal which varies the intensity.
Amethyst has made its stand in many ancient and past eras. It was used as a gemstone by the Ancient Egyptians largely for engraved gems. The origin of the name is a reference to the belief that the stone protected its owner from drunkenness. The Ancient Greeks and Romans wore amethyst and made drinking vessels of it in the belief that it would prevent intoxication.
Medieval European soldiers wore amethyst amulets as protection in battle believing that they have healing powers and would keep them cool-headed. Beads of amethyst were found in Anglo-Saxon graves in England.