Sapphire (from Ancient Greek: σάπφειρος "blue stone", which probably at the time referred to lapis lazuli) is a gemstone of the mineral corundum.
The famous deep rich blue colour associated with sapphires is attributed to the presence of elements such as iron, titanium, chromium, copper or magnesium alongside its aluminium oxide being (Al2O3). Besides blue sapphire, the corundum family includes the so-called "fancy sapphires". They come in violet, green, yellow, orange, pink, purple, some can even be grey, black or brown.
There are different domiciled sapphire and their individual attributes are listed below:
KASHMIR: "Cornflower Blue" is the more velvety and rare sapphires version typically from Kashmir.
BURMESE: "Royal Blue" is the typical colour of Burmese sapphire from Mogok with its slightly violet blue.
CEYLON: Ceylon Sapphires (Sri Lanka) are reportedly unique in colour, clarity and lustre compared to the blue sapphires from other countries.
MADAGASCAR: With a typical intense and deep violet-blue.
Padparadscha is the incredibly rare pink-orange corundum meaning "lotus flower" in Sinhalese, the language spoken in Sri Lanka where the stones where originally mined. There's no telling how many padparadschas have been sifted from Sri Lanka rivers throughout history, but what we do know is that they have a special affection for the colour that's traditionally been linked with their country.
Traditionally, sapphire symbolizes nobility, truth, sincerity and faithfulness. It has decorated the robes of royalty and clergy members for centuries. More recently, Britain's Prince Charles gave a blue sapphire engagement ring to Lady Diana Spencer in 1981, which know bestows the hand of Lady Diana's son William's fiancé, Kate Middleton. One of the world's largest faceted blue sapphire in existence; the 423 carat Logan Sapphire, in display in the Natural Museum of Natural History in Washington D.C.
Corundum can exhibit a star-like phenomenon known as asterism. When viewed with a single overhead light source shined directly into the stone, a six-ray pattern across a cabochon-cut stone's curved surface is displayed, in the shape of a star. The Black Star of Queensland is believed to be the largest star sapphire ever mined, weighing in at 733 carats, the Star of India being a close second weighing in at 564 carats.